Ferdinand Edralin Marcos (1965-1986)


    CONDITION OF THE PHILIPPINES

There was a decrease of freedom and democracy during the second term of Ferdinand Marcos.

Because of the developments (economically, industrially, and infrastructures) Marcos accomplished, there was a massive increase in tourism rates.

The Marcoses established good relations with world leaders, therefore bringing the Philippines’ image to higher grounds. Foreign relations brought foreign investments in and made the economy boom. During this time, the ratio of the peso to a dollar is 1:1. However, the economy took a downturn during his second term and the prices of the market increased.

Corruption allegations against the government and people’s oppositions to the laws and “dictatorship” of Marcos brought about uprisings and reformation movements to oust the president (PP1)

There was an increase in job opportunities but it declined eventually. In relation to this, huge economic accelerations from OFW remittances were occurring. But declined after the Aquino’s killing controversy.

The inflation rate was high and critics claim it was because of overspending the 1969 budget.


    PRIMARY PROBLEMS
  • Unemployment
  • Destabilized Economy
  • Rampant Corruption in the Government and abuse of authority and power
  • Increased crime rates (before martial law) due to poverty


    PROMISES DURING THE ELECTIONS AND INAUGURATION

• Reformation of International and Domestic Policies (Political, Social, Economical, and Legal Systems)
• Renovation of Roads, Buildings, Public Works and other Infrastructures
• Fix the judiciary systems of the Philippines
• Diminish, prevent, and attack the problem of the government regarding corruption
• Make the Philippines rise to greatness once more
“This nation can be great again. This I have said over and over. It is my articles of faith, and Divine Providence has willed that you and I can now translate this faith into deeds.”
• Economic Development and Good Government


    LAWS AND PROGRAMS
  • Martial Law

Martial Law was declared by Marcos to suppress the increasing civil discord and the threats of communist conquest. The declaration was initially granted by some sectors bit it eventually became unpopular to the people and the masses because of the human rights abuses by the military.

  • Decentralization Act
  • Investment Incentives Act of 1967


    BENEFICIARIES OF THE LAWS AND PROGRAMS

During his first term Marcos focused on developing infrastructure, the development of the North Luzon Expressway benefitted the Filipino common man. Marcos also had livelihood programs for LGU’s to help make their communities more economically developed. The implementation of Martial Law turned to out to be beneficiary to the Philippines during the first year of implementation to till the 80’s the countries GNP increased from P55 billion to P193 billion, this however came at the expense of the Filipinos who lost their sense of democracy during Martial Law.
HOLES AND SHORTCOMINGS OF THE LAWS The policies implemented were not structured and formulated to resolve the problems on poverty.

In his earlier term, good governance was present. However, upon entry of his wife, Imelda, corruption started to surface.

An increase in the population of people included below the poverty line.


    ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES
  • Marcos Ill-gotten wealth
  • Declaration of Martial Law
  • Assassination of Benigno Aquino


    SUMMARY OF GOVERNANCE

During his first term Marcos focused on developing the country’s infrastructure, economy and the agriculture industry. Marcos helped the Philippines reach economic prosperity during the first few years of his terms, also putting up a lot of schools; he put up more schools than all of the previous presidents combined.

Constant threats to the Marcos administration led him to the implementation of Martial Law. The whole country was put under the military’s control. It was well received during the first year as crime rates all over the Philippines dropped and given the social turmoil in the Philippines at the time it was deemed necessary. But after nine years, the military took more excessive actions. Military units were in control of domestic air flights, all incoming calls in the Philippines were not allowed and even stricter curfews were implemented.

The downfall of his administration came when Benigno Aquino was assassinated this fueled even more activist to go into rallies to fight against his administration. In 1986 Marcos held a snap election in order to stop rumors that his government was being overthrown. Ultimately he was driven out of the country with People Power.


    GRADE (DLSU SYSTEM)

2.5

Marcos aimed to establish the Philippines in the foreign context. He further built foreign relations with world royalties and powers and he succeeded in this endeavor. During his reign, he had hoped to establish the Philippine culture and make the country known as a civilized society as opposed to what other first world nations had thought of prior. He encouraged tourism, economic growth, foreign recognition, and discipline, which he was able to attain during his first term. However a sharp downfall came during his later years in the presidency. He declared martial law which started a chaotic nation under his dictatorship and tyranny. Because of his “good start” and accomplishments that we can say helped develop the good parts of today; but, we cannot neglect the lack of leadership in the last few years of his term and  the unanswered questions regarding the controversies plus the shortcomings of his presidency.

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