Corazon C. Aquino (1986-1992)


    CONDITION OF THE PHILIPPINES

Democracy was restored after the reign of Ferndinand Marcos and the declaration of the Martial Law.

A series of natural disasters hit the country such as the 1990 earthquake, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, and a series of Typhoons.

There have been many coup d’état attempts and uprisings.

Brownouts were very frequent and would last for about 12 hours.


    PRIMARY PROBLEMS

Displeased citizens
Power Shortage/Rampant Brownouts


    PROMISES DURING THE ELECTIONS AND INAUGURATION

a.) erosion of our sense of nation
b.) to create jobs and livelihood
c.) deliver social services
d.) bring about peace and order
e.) improve the lives of all our people
f.) mobilize the spirit of volunteerism
-especially among the youth, by documenting and publicizing examples of selfless service to country and people by groups and individuals working in and with the grassroots

Inauguration Speech:
I, as president of the Philippines, will serve and defend its fundamental law, execute its just laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the nation, so help me God.


    LAWS AND PROGRAMS

a.) restoration of democracy
-abolished the legislature
-declared a revolutionary government
-wrote a new constitution (1987 Constitution)

b.) Land Reform

c.) Free secondary schooling

d.) Proclamation No.9
Cory issues Proclamation No. 9 which provides for the creation of a constitutional commission (Concom) to draft a new charter “truly reflective of the ideals and aspirations of the Filipino People,” on or before September 2 of the same year. She appoints 48 men and women, led former justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma, to be members of the Concom.

e.) Proclamation no. 1
Cory, in her inaugural address, issues her first edict: Proclamation No. 1 calling all appointive public officials to submit their courtesy resignations. In her speech, she proceeded to reorganize the government issuing Executive Order No. 1—appointing Cabinet ministers and task forces to help her run the government.

g.) Proclamation no.3
One month after assuming the presidency, Cory issues Proclamation No. 3, proclaiming her government a “revolutionary government.” With this, she suspends the 1973 Constitution installed during martial law and promulgates a provisional “Freedom Constitution,” which vests legislative making powers on her, pending the enactment of the new constitution.

h.) executive order no.88
Cory issues Executive Order 48: Creating an Ad Hoc Special Committee to supervise the liquidation of the affairs of the Constitutional Commission of 1986, preservation of its records, and to undertake its constitutional education campaign.

i.) United States trading in the First Philippine Fund Inc.
On November 9, she opens United States trading in the First Philippine Fund Inc. She later spoke at a meeting of the United States Chamber of Commerce and the United States-Philippine Business Committee, where she urged American business to increase its investment in the Philippines.

i.) ratification of a 1991 treaty

A president must also learn how to bow to the inevitable, as Cory had to do with the negotiations on the renewal of the US lease on its military bases in the Philippines. After keeping her options open, she signaled her support for the ratification of a 1991 treaty allowing the Americans continued access to the installation for ten years, with the option to renew for another ten. The Senate voted 12-11 against the agreement and the Americans were out of the country by 1992.

e.) Administrative Code of 1987

establishes the various Cabinet departments and offices falling within the executive branch of government, and under the direct control and supervision of the President. The Code also prescribes the administrative procedure undertaken in proceedings before the offices under the executive department.

• Executive Order No. 228, July 16, 1987 – Declared full ownership to qualified farmer-beneficiaries covered by PD 27. It also determined the value remaining unvalued rice and corn lands subject of PD 27 and provided for the manner of payment by the FBs and mode of compensation to landowners.

• Executive Order No. 229, July 22, 1987 – Provided mechanism for the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP).

• Proclamation No. 131, July 22, 1987 – Instituted the CARP as a major program of the government. It provided for a special fund known as the Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF), with an initial amount of Php50 billion to cover the estimated cost of the program from 1987-1992.

• Executive Order No. 129-A, July 26, 1987 – streamlined and expanded the power and operations of the DAR.

• Republic Act No. 6657, June 10, 1988 (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law) – An act which became effective June 15, 1988 and instituted a comprehensive agrarian reform program to promote social justice and industrialization providing the mechanism for its implementation and for other purposes. This law is still the one being implemented at present.

• Executive Order No. 405, June 14, 1990 – Vested in the Land Bank of the Philippines the responsibility to determine land valuation and compensation for all lands covered by CARP.

• Executive Order No. 407, June 14, 1990 – Accelerated the acquisition and distribution of agricultural lands, pasture lands, fishponds, agro-forestry lands and other lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture.


    BENEFICIARIES OF THE LAWS AND PROGRAMS

The Common People – Because they were just coming out of the Marcos Regime. They were looking for democracy and freedom.

Corporate Owners of the Lands (Agrarian Reform) – There were holes in the law which made it possible for the companies to distribute stocks instead of land ownership to the farmers.


    HOLES AND SHORTCOMINGS OF THE LAWS

She wasn’t really able to solve the country’s problems by implementing all that she promised because she was constantly distracted by coups that threatened the country and her administration. She focused a lot on disaster management but it was necessary for her to keep the peace.


    ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES

Aquino was not spared from the controversies that eventually centered on Hacienda Luisita, a 6,453-hectare estate located in the Province of Tarlac, which she inherited from her family. She was scored for allowing Hacienda Luisita, which was now owned by the Tarlac Development Corporation, to opt for stock distribution, instead of land redistribution. She also has an issue concerning the farmers of Mendiola being massacred.


    SUMMARY OF GOVERNANCE

Corazon Aquino became the president of the country because the people believed she was the positive change they needed especially since her husband, Ninoy, who was supposed to be the change for the country, passed away in a gunshot. During her administration, Cory was plagued by coup d’etats by various groups that foreign investors started to pull their investments from the country. That’s why a lot of her efforts were pointed towards disaster management from the various groups and sometimes, her motherly methods such as giving cake worked. She was also linked to controversies such as massacring farmers in Mendiola and holding the land she inherited rather than having it distributed. Despite these problems, The economy still had a positive growth during her term with an average of 3.8% by the end of it. Cory, although wasn’t the best qualified president, still did a pretty good job. Compared to Marcos or Ramos though, it still fell short of what truly makes a spectacular leader which is why she’s rated as average.


    GRADE (DLSU SYSTEM)
  • 2.0
  • measured her not only in terms of moral character and her desire to help the Philippines
  • failed in making the Philippines economically stable
  • focused on ensuring democracy to the people
  • reformation of the constitution putting
    more emphasis on human rights and civil
    liberties

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